ACEA classification for engine oil for Cool-Free units, Boats, Yachts, Cars, Trucks
The ACEA classification for engine oil has four different engine oil types. The "A" series is intended for spark-ignition engines (petrol / LPG engines), the "B" series for diesel engines in passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The "C" series includes so-called "catalyst compatible" products suitable for both gasoline / LPG engines and diesel engines in passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. This "C" series is specifically intended for engines equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment equipment (three-way catalytic converter, soot filter) that limits the sulfur and phosphorus content and the sulphate number of the engine oil to be used. Finally, the "E" series is intended for commercial vehicle engines and types derived therefrom in, for example, agricultural tractors and earth-moving equipment (diesel engines with a maximum speed <2500 revolutions per minute).
|"light duty" engine||"catalyst compatible oils"||"heavy duty" engines|
The ACEA specifications form the starting point on which the European automobile industry bases its engine oil regulations. A number of common minimum requirements are defined to which each manufacturer can add additional additional requirements at his own discretion. That also happens on a large scale. The additional requirements usually consist of a more or less extensive test in own-manufactured engines and / or higher results to be achieved in the standard tests as laid down by ACEA.
To limit the number of possible species, a number of "A / B" combinations have been defined. This makes it possible to fill a large number of different engine types in passenger cars and light commercial vehicles with one and the same product, so that maintenance companies and garages with a smaller stock can suffice and the risk of mistakes is reduced.
The ACEA specifications are comprehensive and complex. They all consist of a number of laboratory tests and a number of engine tests. The numbers are only a sequential number in the development process and do not indicate the relative quality level. A higher number therefore does not always mean a higher degree of wear protection.
For some types, the aim is to lower fuel consumption by applying a lower viscosity and at the same time accept a slightly higher degree of wear. Also, the degree to which a certain type is compatible with exhaust gas after-treatment equipment can vary widely. Interchangeability within products from the same category is therefore certainly not always the case!
When switching from one type to the other (within the same category, ie within A / B, C or E), it is important to check carefully what is allowed for the relevant motor. An incorrect choice can lead to more wear and tear, higher fuel consumption or, in the long term, a poorer performance of exhaust gas after treatment equipment.
Switching to a category other than recommended (from A / B to C or E, from C to A / B or E and from E to A / B or C) is not advisable, because in the longer term problems will almost certainly can occur.
Products are available on the market that meet one or more descriptions from the A / B category, the C category and the E category.
These products can therefore be used in various types of engines. When a specific specification is requested that is also included in such a "multi-group product", it can be switched over without any problems.
"A / B" types: focus on fuel consumption or wear protection
The main differences between the different "A / B" types are in the high temperature viscosity (150 ° C) and in the permitted sulphate ash number.
viscosity at 150 ° C (mPa.s) sulfate ash number% m / m
A3 / B3> = 3.5 <= 1.5
A3 / B4> = 3.5 <= 1.6
A5 / B5> = 2.9, <= 3.5 <= 1.6
"A3 / B3" includes the minimum quality requirements for gasoline and (indirectly injected) diesel engines. "A3 / B4" includes the same requirements but is also intended for direct-injection diesel engines. "A3 / B4" can therefore completely replace "A3 / B3".
"A5 / B5" can be seen as the "fuel-saving variant" of "A3 / B4". "A3 / B3" and "A3 / B4" are the most requested.
The different "C" types differ from each other in viscosity, additive content and the permitted sulphate ash number.
viscosity at 150 ° C (mPa.s) sulfur content,% m / m phosphorus content,% m / m sulfate ash number% m / m
C1> = 2.9 <= 0.2 <= 0.05 <= 0.5
C2> = 2.9 <= 0.3> = 0.07, <= 0.09 <= 0.8
C3> = 3.5 <= 0.3> = 0.07, <= 0.09 <= 0.8
C4> = 3.5 <= 0.2 <= 0.09 <= 0.5
C5> = 2.6 & <2.9 <= 0.3> = 0.070, <= 0.090 <= 0.8
The overview shows that the "C" types of the "A / B" combinations differ mainly due to a much lower sulphate ash number. In addition, the sulfur and phosphorus content is limited.